Remote Sensing with Drone advanced technology
Without the members of the Bohic Ruz Team it would be impossible to achieve the results obtained.
It´s a pleasure to work with the Bohic Ruz exploration team on the most risky expeditions
Research and filming works
We make films and archaeological and archaeoastronomical research in the ruins of Ollantaytambo, one of the most monumental architectural complexes of the Andes, 80 km. From Cusco in the Urubamba Valley. Commonly called "Fortress" because of its huge walls, it was actually a city-bed and a solar temple, strategically located in the famous "Sacred Valley".
The architectural type used, and the quality of each stone, worked individually make Ollantaytambo one of the works of spectacular and remarkable engineering that made the ancient Peruvians, especially in the area of the Temple of the Sun with its gigantic monoliths.
According to Pi Rambla, the sector of the Temple of the sun of Ollantaytambo, which is only a wall was not built by the Incas as announces the official archeology (DC 1440) but by an ancient culture that is still unknown. According to their research, some of the granite stones that make up this wall weighing over forty tons were transported from the mountain which is across the river of a distance of 4 kilometers with a height of over 800 meters.
Many questions arise that even conventional science could not explain: How were they transported these enormous blocks of stone from a quarry located 4 kilometers away, perched on mountain slope to the very top where the sun temple is located? How they were planted and put in place?.
Spectacular rock cut made with a totally unknown and very sophisticated technique as we can see in the photo. How they were cut and polished with such a level of perfection?. This is not achieved with tools of stone or bronze, as these materials do not make a dent in andesite and pink granite that Ollantaytambo was built. How did you managed to gather each other with such improbable perfection, you can not insert a sheet of paper in the joints? and they did it without any mortar or cement or some kind of sealant.Anselm Pi Rambla
Archaeoastronomical studies at the Intiwatana of Machu Picchu with Professor Benjamin Sánchez Fernández, Doctor mining engineer and professor at the University of Oviedo, Spain
In this Works are used oriented digital models to make the astronomical interpetation of the intiwatana of machu pichu, which was carved into a granite rock with the course to know the different seasons of the solar year. For the digital model of the Intiwatana and its environment it was necessary to carry out a field work that was basically on positions with absolute coordinates using a GPS navigator a lifting speedometer accuracy with electronic total station and reflection and Miniprisms angular sun observations, using the total station to determine the direction of true north. The field work was done on 20 and 21 of June in 2000, obtaining the refered values of the WGS-84 system. Latitude: 13 ° 9 '47.3 "S, Longitude: 72 ° 32' 44.5" W; Ellipsoid height: 2500 m. Because of the mountains surrounding the citadel of Machu Picchu have a quite pronounced relief, in order to know its profile in areas where the sun rises and sets, horizontal and zenith angles of the highlights of the horizon were taken. These measurements are also oriented to true north with the data from the solar observation. To refer to true north coordinates of the measured points in an arbitrarily oriented system, it was necessary to solve the astronomical triangle formed by the peak position of the station point, the position of the center of the sun and the Earth's north pole. The data needed for this calculation were the geographical coordinates, latitude and longitude, obtained by GPS station point; the exact time it was noted in the sun, expressed in T.U. (Standard time + 5 hours); and the values of the declining, semidiameter apparent when the sun over Greenwich antimeridiano that were obtained from the yearbooks for instant astronomical observation. Once solved the astronomical triangle position 67.991 degrees azimuth to the origin of horizontal angles allowing the guide to true north taquimétrico survey conducted simply by making a turn (in topographical sense) of -67.991 degrees was obtained using as center turning the measurement station. For astronomical interpretation of Intiwatana among the many possibilities that exist, in this work it was chosen to study the shadows on the monolith at the moment of sunrise over mountains in singular dates, such as solstices June and December, the equinoxes and the passage of the sun through the zenith and antizenith the place of observation. he results obtained were: June solstice (June 21) Azimuth: 68.240 degrees; Zenith angle: 84.600 degrees December solstice (December 21) Azimuth: 124.408 degrees; Zenith angle: 89.088 degrees Equinoxes (March 20 and September 22) Azimuth: 96.779 degrees; Zenith angle: 86.444 degrees Cenit (February 14 and October 28) Azimuth: 112.149 degrees; Zenith angle: 86.763 degrees Antizenith (April 24 and August 17) Azimuth: 81.435 degrees; Zenith angle: 86.950 degrees From a several of photographs taken of the Intiwatana, from different perspectives and using a computer program, a photogrammetric digital model of the monolith mentioned was determined. The program used convergent part of frames of object to be reconstructed digitally, and requires that the frames completely sprinkle on the object, so that in each pair of adjacent frames there are at least three common and easily identifiable points. The program calculates the model according to the following process: * Determine the coordinates (x, y, z) of the points of making photographs. * Calculate the angles of orientation of the frame in space. * Find the coordinates (x, y, z) of each point on the object identified. Once we know the coordinates of each point on the object labeled it is possible to build a model using wired lines connecting the dots. This can be defined wireframe surfaces and textures give them obtained by the photographs.
If the representation is observed in plant obtained topographic digital model, you can see that the upper parallelepiped of Intiwatana is oriented such that the bisectors of the angles formed by the faces coincide quite precisely with the geographic directions north, south, east and west. Western edges of the upper platform Intiwatana, have an alignment parallel to the base of the upper parallelepiped, so that their bisector also indicates the west direction. The western part of the platform seems to be quite adequate for the observations of the shadows cast by the sun at dawn. At dawn on June solstice, step by antizenith, equinox, passing through the zenith and December solstice shows that the sun's shadow is projected on the upper platform of the Intiwatana, particularly on the edges to the west, proving as shadow moves over them, being the northwest ridge best suited to observe the zenith passage and December solstice. For other dates can be used either edges. In terms of precision that could determine these dates interest depends on the daily variation in the sun's declination in before and after the same day, is very small at the solstices, but the rest is variation more important, and given the distance from which the shade, which is about 0.6 meters, the daily movement thereof is approximately 5 mm is projected magnitude that is perfectly observable and that could determine without any uncertainty any of these dates, including the zenith passage, that would serve to know precisely the cycle of the solar year (tropical year) and as a consequence have a tool for measuring time.
Professor Benjamin Sánchez Fernández, University of Oviedo, Spain
Works in the Reserve of Pampa Galeras with Dr. Felipe Benavides, president of the World Wildlife Fund of Peru (PRODENA)
Anselm Pi Rambla & Bohic Ruz Team collaborated in the Pampa Galeras Reserve with PRODENA (WWF-Peru) and Dr. Felipe Benavides in the preservation of Vicuñas and Guanacos of its extinction.
40 years ago Felipe Benavides Barreda (1917-1991), a successful person in protecting natural heritage, became the first winner of the award “J. Paul Getty Conservation of Wildlife”. Thanks to his interventions could save the vicuna extinction by hunters.
Felipe Benavides, winner of the Paul Getty Award
Contact with natives Piros and Machiguengas
In this expedition to the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest, the Bohic Ruz Team collaborated with the anthropology department of the Complutense University (Madrid, Spain) on an ethnological research of the tribes Piros and Machiguengas of the zone of the Alto Madre de Dios.
These studies were complemented with ecological research in collaboration with the North American biologist Dra. Jane Stern of the department of zoology of the University of California (Davis) and professor of Biology in Berkeley (USA).
With a total of 8679 registered individuals, the Machiguengas constitute 3.62% of the registered indigenous population. This total does not include the isolated population whose volume cannot be determined. Nor does it include the kugapakori already sedentary and established relatively a few years ago in Montetoni and Malanquiato, in Alto Camisea, with a population of approximately 240 individuals. Population estimates considered a minimum of 7000 people (Wise and Ribeiro, 1978) to a maximum of 12000 people for this group (Varese, 1972; Uriarte, 1976).
In 1924, the missionary Navarro estimated its population at only 3000 or 4000 individuals. In the Machiguengas settlements there are an average of 271 people, although those established in the Manu area are smaller with an average of 100 people.
The masculinity index is 104.2, which is below the average registered for the entire census indigenous population. The distribution of the population according to age indicates a large group of children under 15 years of age (49.6%) and only 1.2% over 64 years of age, which characterizes a young and growing population. The crude death rate is 11.29.Bohic Ruz Explorer
Like the rest of the sites occupied by the Incas in the Urubamba River, near Machu Picchu, in the Intiwatana area there are sidewalks, grounds and ceremonial sites with stone sculptures
The Urubamba river in its route to Machu Picchu bends that aligns with the area that is obtained the water for central facilities. In the 121 km of the railroad agricultural platforms and ceremonial complex are located. In the lower part of the slope occupied by the archaeological site, the farmers know the name of the hill as "El Calvario” has traced the development of the railway which forms a zig-zag to save excessive slope. Down of the railway are the extensive facilities of the Electricity Generation Company in Machu Picchu. The area described is situated on the left bank of the Urubamba River, which later receives waters of the stream Aobamba. The place was visited by travelers and members of the scientific expedition that led Hiram Bingham, who made the first scientific recognition site. The agricultural terraces were always used by the farmers settled in the area, who probably looted existing graves at the site, long before the arrival of that expedition. It is a very poorly documented testimony prehispanico which there are almost no references.
The site is enclosed by steep slopes that descend to the river. To the west side are the Llactapata and Puncuyoc hills to the north Cerro San Cristobal, on the right bank of the Urubamba River and the east side hill called Yucaypata. In that frame of topography it stands on the east side, in the upper part of the slope, a sort of rocky promontory known as Yanacaca. That lytic formation seen in the distance as the silhouette of the head of a flame and is located just in a place that is observed from the Intiwatana of Machu Picchu. It is likely that natural element triggered the creation of the ceremonial sector we describe, which has been chosen so as to have direct toward the back of Machupicchu visual. The site can be seen in the distance the pyramid promontory where the Intiwatana of Machu Picchu is located, showing a room with two windows and stepped platforms.
The Incas gave sculptural outcrops of rocks that were in the places they recognized a magical or religious forms. In this case the hard granite rock sculpted masterfully to express the complex symbolism of the Tawantinsuyo worldview. Attached to the slope of the hill it is located the source of ceremonial face to the North East, as well as the ceremonial seats and pyramid sculpture located a few meters away, forming a set of ritual use facing the rising sun. In the same orientation coincides with the location of pyramidal mound of Machu Picchu, visible in the distance. The source has been shaped like a block of granite rock flat and vertical, four meters long and one meter sixty to eighty centimeters high and just wide. It has been carved on a outcrop of rock by matching its middle channel, also carved in the stone, which allows access of water then leaves four suppliers cut into the face of the stone, as openings runs equidistant two feet each other. This lytic volume occupies the central part of sacred space and was the main shrine. Masterfully sculpture provides, thanks to the play of light and shadow that accentuate their geometric design, the vision of a phased sign of deep significance in Inca iconography.
The stepped sign is linked to lightning, Illapa, which in turn is associated with water divinity. However, the face of the sculpture that receives sunlight in the morning is a truncated triangle geometric shape that could be related to the worship of Punchao, the divinity of the day. To the East side of the sculpture, it exists on a carved rock with curved staircases platform, which are descending into a ravine cut vertically. This concave size received the water that ran the ceremonial source and derived to fall like a veil on the vertical section of the creek. The use and function of this sculpture, and his real name in Inca times is unknown to us yet, because they have done work ethno-historical and archaeological research. Thanks to the quality of the stone material on which it has carved sculpture, his condition is good, although regrettable neglect of the site is devoid of a direct and convenient access.
Research on Arthur Posnansky's work at the ruins of Tiahuanaco
When the conquest of Peru by Pizarro, the Incas claimed that Tiahuanaco had never known anything but ruins. Their elders and sages claimed it was the city of the first men of the Earth, which was created by the god Wiracocha. Arthur Posnansky, begginings of the century, was the first to propose a dating of Tiahuanaco based on the alignments of the monoliths at certain star positions. He found that the angle at which the horizon of Tiwanaku was in the time of its construction (obliquity of the ecliptic, not to be confused by with the phenomenon of precession) was 23º 8'48'' and corresponded to an undetermined date around 15,000 BC During the years 1927-1930, scientists from other disciplines checked carefully Posnansky investigations. These scientists, members of a powerful group who also studied many other archaeological sites in the Andes, were Dr Hans Ludendorff, then director of the Astronomical Observatory of Potsdam, Dr. Friedrich Becker of the Specula Vaticanita, and two other astronomers: the Professor Arnold Kohlschütter, University of Bonn, and Dr. Rolf Muller of the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam After three years of meticulous work, the scientists concluded that Posnansky was basically right, and the proposed date of 15,000 BC It was within the limits of the possible. Posnansky developed a theory that an advanced civilization populated America much earlier than most experts assumed that civilization and died after a devastating cataclysm. And inevitably emerged a name to explain the cultural origin of Tiahuanaco: Atlantis.
That was his mistake. The conclusions of Posnansky were cornered because of the scientific academy on that damned continent.
According to some Andean traditions tell us that the original name of Tiwanaku was "CHUCHARA" and that there were two cities one below the other, the main underground. In the living area workers and workshops they were. The underground city would give us the key to a remarkable civilization, dating back to the early days. It was acceded to it by several entrances that ended at the site of Tiwanaku. Without ruling out or belittle these ancient traditions and adding the data collected during many years of research by our team Bohic Ruz, we think that at a depth between 10 and 25 meters, there is another Tiahuanaco. We agree with the investigations and conclusions of Oswaldo Rivera (INAR former director of the Institute of Archaeology of Bolivia). We think it might be a huge sunken city, which must accommodate the unique culture of the place. We currently don’t have sufficient evidence because it has been excavated only 5% of its surface. To date there are five periods for Tiahuanaco detected, and there is an obvious relationship to each other. But still we do not know if will be a pre-tiahuanaco culture.
The search of archaeological treasures is what has motivated most of the expeditions to Lake Titicaca. In this case, the figure of William Mardoff American diver, hired in 1956 by a Bolivian millionaire to rescue a supposed hidden treasure to be found among silt and abundant aquatic vegetation. After a long search, did not find any treasure but Mardoff described details of "a city submerged of Titans that is partially covered by mud and algae." In 1968, Argentinean Ramón Avellaneda led the expedition called Fer de Lance. The large number of photographs and films were achieved and the strongest evidence of the existence of submerged cities in the sacred lake. Divers who made up this underwater mission found huge monolithic stones assembled together, forming walls, similar to those of Sacsayhuaman. They also found perfectly paved roads with huge stone slabs that were lost in the mud and algae. Analyzed the photos, they reached the conclusion that it was megalithic ruins. In 1979, while the film The Sacred Lake, is filmed under the direction of researcher Hugo Boero Rojo, the team found "similar to the fortress of Sacsayhuaman Cyclopean embankments". La Paz newspapers published on December 4, 1980 statements divers: "monumental stone blocks that appear to be half-destroyed walls of temples, paths that are lost in the deep caverns, roads that go deep into the depths were found from the lake". The most ancient traditions of the Kipus match Mardoff discoveries, Avellaneda, Squier and Boero. In chronic "Copacabana of the Incas", of Baltasar Salas, reference is made to "purple imponderables, because they never were so sublime, nor ever will again be on like them Earth," a sort of "planted orchard by the same God from the first day of the Universe, and embedded in the crisp mountain slopes triform Ariccaxxa perpetual snows and Illamphu, and Aukyuma and Ccanawiri ". And he adds: "They can never narrate these beauties magnificence, or the same cherubes (cherubim) that kept spotless until the flood, phenomenal whose waters the had become cenotaphs fateful flattened and covered by the lake Intiwara or Tharip-wira-Ccocha".
Lake Titicaca, located almost 4000 meters altitude in the Andes between Bolivia and Peru, remains of civilizations of more than 2000 years are hidden below the lake that a revolutionary plan of underwater archeology is trying to reveal.